Applicants must have completed a bachelor's degree or the equivalent before beginning graduate study. Applicants who already hold a Ph.D. degree will not be considered for a second Ph.D. degree. Transcripts, three letters of recommendation, a CV, and the applicant's statement of purpose are required components of the application and are carefully and equally weighed during the evaluation process. GRE scores (subject and general) may be required, strongly recommended, or optional based upon the specific option requirements. Applicants who are required to submit test scores should include self-reported scores on the application, if available, and request official score reports from ETS. The official scores will be used to verify the self-reported scores. Note: We recognize scores from tests taken within the last five years. However, ETS will only report scores from tests taken within the last two years. For tests taken more than two years ago, applicants should also send official copies of score reports as we cannot accept self-reported scores as the sole submission for older test dates. Applicants whose native language is not English and those who have had no formal instruction in English will be required to take a test to evaluate English proficiency. Please refer to "Required Tests" below for a list of the specific academic option GRE reporting requirements and the English proficiency exams currently accepted.